Courage, bravery, fortitude, will, and intrepidity, is the ability to confront fear, pain, risk/danger, uncertainty, or intimidation. "Physical courage" is courage in the face of physical pain, hardship, death, or threat of death, while "moral courage" is the ability to act rightly in the face of popular opposition, shame, scandal, or discouragement. from Wikipedia
Civil courage (sometimes also referred to as "Social courage") is defined by many different standards. In general, the term is usually referred to when civilians stand up against something that is deemed unjust and evil, knowing that the consequences of their action might lead to their death, injury or some other form of significant harm.
Bravery is the subcategory most people generally associate with Courage. It is defined as “the ability to stand up for what is right in difficult situations.
Muhammad had great courage. He faced a multitude of dangers and calamities all at once but never showed any weakness or timidity. When the opposition and rebukes of the Quraish of Makkah became unbearable, his uncle Abu Talib spoke to Muhammad and said, "Could you not be silent about all this; believe it all for yourself, but not trouble others, anger the chief men, and endanger yourself and all of us, talking of it?" Muhammad answered:
"If the sun stood on my right hand and the moon on my left, ordering me to hold my peace, I could not obey!"
This indicates what divine courage Muhammad possessed and that he never showed any weakness in his determination to fight for a just cause.
Abu Hurairah reported God`s Messenger saying, "By Him in Whose Hand my soul is, were it not that men among the believers are not satisfied with remaining behind me when I cannot accommodate them, I would stay behind when an expedition goes out in God`s Way. By Him in Whose Hand my soul is, I wish I could be killed and brought to life, then be killed again." (Bukhari and Muslim).
Al-Baraa ibn Aazib (May Allah show mercy to them ) said: 'Wallahi, if the war become severe we would shield ourselves from the enemy, by getting behind the Prophet, and the brave one from amongst us was the one who would stand next to the Messenger of Allah'. Muslim